Probiotic Delivery System

The precise ratio of apple pectin to apple fiber in Apple ProPectinallows it to form a gel-like matrix when ingested with liquid which surrounds the probiotic organisms, protecting them from destruction in the upper digestive tract.[7] Recent studies have demonstrated probiotic organisms combined with pectin exhibited significantly greater viability in the intestines compared to those that were not.[8] Of the many commercially-available pectins, the type used in Apple ProPectinpossesses the ideal combination of properties required to protect probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract including the capacity to form stable gels in the acidic conditions of the stomach.[9]

Prebiotic

Numerous studies have shown combining probiotics with prebiotics greatly improves the survival rate and level of metabolic activity of probiotics in vivo. Apple ProPectinmeets all three characteristics of a true prebiotic. Apple pectin and apple fiber are stable in both acidic and alkaline conditions so they are not subject to degradation during the digestive process. Both are easily fermented by new bacteria as well as those already colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. The metabolic fuel provided through this natural fermentation process promotes the increased growth and activity of intestinal microflora which helps the body achieve and maintain optimum health.[10,11] 

Research has shown the pectin in Apple ProPectincan be used by a wide array of colonic bacteria for growth and metabolic function.  Specifically, it is used by the microflora of the colon to produce short chain fatty acids, primarily acetate and butyrate.[12] Acetate protects the intestinal tract from pathogenic gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli.[13] Butyrate has many health benefits which include helping to maintain normal activity of the epithelial cells in the colon and the metabolism of energy and cholesterol systemically.[14,15] Pectin has also been shown to aid in the absorption of major minerals as well as bind with and facilitate the elimination of heavy metals and chemical toxins from the intestinal tract.[16] As an additional benefit, pectin has the potential to lower the diffusion rate of cholesterol-containing micelles from the intestinal tract helping to maintain normal blood cholesterol levels.[9] A recent study further supports pectin’s prebiotic capabilities as the results indicate the fermentation of pectin encourages an increase in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 10, by the intestinal microflora.[17]

REFERENCES

  1. Dafe A, Etemadi H, Dilmaghani A, Mahdavinia GR. Investigation of pectin/starch hydrogel as a carrier for oral delivery of probiotic bacteria. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017 Apr; 97:536-543.
  2. Larsen N, Cahú TB , Isay Saad SM , Blennow A , Jespersen L. The effect of pectins on survival of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. in gastrointestinal juices is related to their structure and physical properties. Food Microbiol. 2018 Sep; 74:11-20.
  3. Sharma BR, Naresh L, Dhuldhoya NC, Merchant SU, Merchant UC. An Overview on Pectins. Times Food Processing Journal, 2006 June-July; 44-51.
  4. Petrova P, Petrov KK. Prebiotic–Probiotic Relationship: The Genetic Fundamentals of Polysaccharides Conversion by Bidobacterium and Lactobacillus Genera. Food Bioconversion 2017. 237-278.
  5. Slavin J. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits. Nutrients. 2013 Apr; 5(4): 1417–1435.
  6. Kaczmarczyka MM, Miller MJ, Freunda GG. The health benefits of dietary fiber: Beyond the usual suspects of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and colon cancer. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. 2012 Aug; 61(8): 1058-1066.
  7. Lee YL , Cesario T, Owens J, Shanbrom E, Thrupp LD. Antibacterial activity of citrate and acetate. Nutrition. 2002 Jul-Aug; 18(7-8):665-6.
  8. Waldecker M et al. Histone-deacetylase inhibition and butyrate formation: Fecal slurry incubations with apple pectin and apple juice extracts. Nutrition. 2008 Apr; 24(4):366-74.
  9. Chen Y, Xu C, Huang R, Song J, Li D, Xia M. Butyrate from pectin fermentation inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption and attenuates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein deficient mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2018 Jun; 56:175-182.
  10. Lara-Espinoza C, Carvajal-Millán E, Balandrán-Quintana R, López-Franco Y, Rascón-ChuPectin A. Pectin-Based Composite Materials: Beyond Food Texture. Molecules. 2018 Apr; 23(4): 942.
  11. Chung WSF et al. Prebiotic potential of pectin and pectic oligosaccharides to promote anti-inflammatory commensal bacteria in the human colon. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2017 Nov 1;93(11).
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